Monday, October 14, 2019
The Regional Economic Integration Introduction: Regional economic integration has existed in most geographical regions since the early days of the multilateral trade system. For example, the European Union was first established as the European Economic Community through the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Latin America and Central America followed soon after with the formation of the Latin American Free Trade Association and the Central American Common Market in 1960. By 1965, regional integration had also begun to take root in North America with the conclusion of the Automobile Products Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Regional economic integration is both a process and a state of affairs. Regional economic integration basically approaches a hierarchical model. Free trade area involves the elimination of tariffs and quotas on goods. This is followed by a customs union, in which members of a free trade area also adopt a common external tariff. A common market is the next step and involves creating a single market, with common policies on product regulation and the free movement of goods, services and factors of production. To benefit from regional integration, there are various conditions which has to be fulfilled, they are political commitment of all countries, to higher forms of integration; mutual economic dependence; disparities between countries of the region or narrow economic gaps; similarities at the policy level basically in human development and social policies; lastly, good governance and institutions in order to maximize the benefits of economic integration. Regional economic integration generally leads to greater foreign direct investment (FDI), financial and capital account liberalization, trade liberalization and migration of labour. A region made be regional integration mainly attracts foreign investment and it also reduce the rivalry between the neighbouring regions. Regional Economic Integration in East Asia: In the last two decades, the East Asian economies have achieved substantial liberalisation in Foreign Direct investment (FDI) under the frameworks of WTO and APEC. The result of the expansion of trade and FDI has become the main reason for development and economic growth in East Asia. Trade and FDI openness has also encouraged domestic institutional and governance reforms, which has further promoted trade and investment. Since early 1990s, emerging East Asia has also experienced increasing financial openness. Financial openness helps in rapid economic growth by attracting short term capital and long term capital with trade and FDI openness, with deepened market driven economic interdependence in East Asia. It has been applied as valuable comparative parameters due to a number of its significant characteristics: East Asia is the world largest regional market of 2 billion populations, which is much bigger than the 27 countries of European Union contributing 495 million and NAFTA contributing 405 million populations. After 1960 East Asia has been recorded as the fastest growing region of the world. The region has recorded average annual economic growth rates of around 7%, which is much higher than that of the average 5% growth in the rest of the world. East Asia contents almost half of the worlds foreign exchange reserves and in which China alone recorded a world largest foreign exchange reserve which passed $1.4 trillion in 2007. Along with the European Union and the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), East Asia is one of the worlds three largest economically integrated regions. East Asia has been characterized by extensive economic integration at both regional and global level. Commercial enterprises based in East Asian states particularly Japan, but increasingly also emerging industrial states such as Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan have been at the forefront of processes of regional economic integration, and are increasingly important contributors to global transnational research and development (RD) and production networks. China, a relative latecomer to transnational economic collaboration, is an increasingly prominent participant both regionally and global as well, as it undergoes a transition from a site for low value added assembly and production to advanced production. Regional economic integration in East Asia is notable not only for its extent, but also for the degree to which it transcends the economic and politico military rivalries of the states concerned. The pattern of East Asian economic integration reflects relatively little concern ove r economic objectives stemming from the perceived requirements of national security or intra regional economic competition. The most striking example of this is provided by China and Taiwan, which have managed to develop an extensive and mutually beneficial economic relationship, despite their long standing rivalry. Achievements of Regional Economic Integration in East Asia The prospect of regional economic integration plays a positive role in East Asia after initiating in United States and other western countries. Following are the some of the achievements of regional economic integration in East Asia which can be the proof that East Asia is gathering pace. (i) ASIAN Free Trade Area ASIAN is the important foundation for regional integration in East Asia. This was the first ever regional economic integration of East Asia. It does not affect the intra ASEAN trade and also the regions overall trade with world. The change came in 1992 when ASEAN achieved establish agreement on free trade area in order to help its neighbouring economies to achieve growth in trade. The main aim of ASEAN is to attract investors from foreign and regional as well. Multinational corporations locating in ASEAN would be able to exploit economies of scale and to rationalize production by allocating different segments of production processes among the ASEAN countries according to their respective competitive advantage. He tariff is reduced to 0 5% till 2008 for ASEAN. ASEAN also conduct various agreements focused on enhancing regional integration in transport and communications, trade facilitation, investment, e commerce and intellectual property rights. (ii) Free Trade Agreement Regional Economic Integration in the form of Free Trade Areas has come into existence in the Asia Pasic region. Growing number of bilateral and plurilateral FTAs involving such countries as Japan, China, Singapore, Korea, Canada, New Zealand, Mexico and Chile are currently being negotiated. Significantly, this trend is gathering momentum not much because of a change of sentiments in some of the countries in the region like Japan, China and Korea, which have been strongly opposed to preferential arrangements in the past. In the various Asian countries an important breakthrough was achieved when Japan and Singapore agreed in October 2000 to begin negotiations on a bilateral FTA with a view to concluding the talks by the end of 2001. These results to be gained a little by both countries which already have open investment region, minimum tariff and little trade in the area of agriculture. The important features of Japan and Singapore free Trade Area are establishing the harmonisation of legal frameworks, mutual recognisation of certification authorities for digital signature and coordinated corporate privacy standard. With the help of FTA many Japanese firms find it easier to run their operations in Singapore. This FTA will not only benefit these two signatories but will also have positive effect on various other countries of East Asia. Japan Singapore FTA is also important because it is the first institutionalized link between North East Asian economies and South East Asian economies. It is therefore has a potentially positive demonstration effect that could catalyse closer economic integration in East Asia as a whole. Many times the idea of East Asia FTA was failed few years back. But later East Asia Free Trade Area showed a great pace and attributed not only Japan Singapore FTA but also change the position of other East Asian countries like China. With the successful launch of Japan Singapore FTA, China also decided either creates a free trade zone between China and ASEAN to set up link with the ASEAN Free Trade Area. (iii) ASEAN plus three Unlike other more established regional groupings, cooperation among the ASEAN+3 (i.e. ASEAN plus China, Japan and Korea) thus far has been proceeding more rapidly on financial issues than on trade matters. So for this purpose it is decided to call for a summit on an annual basis which can be a kind of informal meeting. The aim of these summits is to set up the vision to explore ideas for cooperation and has also been holding regular meetings of its Finance Ministers. Trade agreements in East Asia are basically slow to organize as in other regions partly and politically difficult to reach because of the diversity in approaches to trade liberalization. Financial cooperation can proceed more quickly to some extent without discrimination against outsiders. For this purpose, the financial crisis in 1997 provided a strong impetus for East Asia to push ahead with financial cooperation. ASEAN+3 have also implemented a region wide system of currency swaps to help countries in the region which are dealing with possible future financial crises. This currency swap system will helps in the surveillance mechanism that ASEAN has created to anticipate and head off future crises through sophisticated early warning indicators. These achievements are the positive sign that shows the further growth in the region of East Asia after facing financial crisis in 1997. Impact of Regional Economic Integration: Case from China Since ancient China has the hegemonic power in the East Asian region with good relation with neighbouring countries. East Asian region was also influenced by Chinese traditional culture including language and philosophies. Till mid 9th century China has still the largest economy in the world but after mid 19th century till early 20th century China was overwhelmed by static decay, civil instability, famines, military defeats and foreign occupation. During the Cold War period, Chinas social experiments achieved some progresses but suffered serious setbacks due to the internal and external constraints. Since China started the economic reform in late 1970s, the world witnesses the return of Chinas emergence as a regional and global political and economic power. China attracted various large foreign firms when it adopted the open door policy and large amount of foreign currency inflows into China this was not enough after this many industries with latest technology and better infrastructure have established in China. Taking the example of Hong Kong, it has moved almost all of its manufacturing industries to China while. In recent years Taiwan and Mainland China are also came into economic relation after China open doors for foreign investments. Due to the shift of these firms the growth of country as well as firm are coming into existence. In terms of intra regional economic relations in East Asia, since the 1990s there has been a shift away from the previous Japan led flying geese model of vertical economic integration structured on the basis of the Japanese investment, technological transfer and supply of manufacturing parts in line with a hierarchical market exchange and regional division of labour and production networks to a new horizon tal intra regional economic integration. Economic integration helps China to grow in positive way in terms of economy and trade which makes Asia to make stand in the competition with developed nations of EU and NAFTA. The new engine of regional economic growth in China is basically by foreign direct investment which becomes the reason for the developments in the region. It generated networks between domestic firms and other firms in the other countries. This network based exchange of trade and capital has profound impact to East Asian economic integration. One of the key actors in generating dynamic intra regional industrial and economic integrations is the overseas Chinese business communities. Economic integration not only contributing Chinas economy to grow by the sources of foreign direct investment but also contributes to be a network connector which becomes link between Chinese market with rest of the region. With this link many of the developed economies in the region are usi ng China as low cost manufacturing and export base instead of directly exporting finished goods to the Western markets. For this purpose they moved there production in China which results in enhancing the Chinas integration in the regional economy in East Asia. Main factors of these firms in regards to regional integration with China because China act as a source of technology and expertise, Capital and it also brings close business relation between China and rest of the region. The rise of China has met different responses from different corners of the world. With the rapid economic growth due to the regional integration has transformed the Asia in many ways. Talking in economical and political terms Chinas energy and commercial ties with all major regions of the world are expanding. China is one of the main driving forces proliferating regional and bilateral trade agreements and politically, it is often interpreted that China seeks to shape the regions emerging political institutional contours and to encourage movement toward an East Asian community in order to balance the declining influence of the United States. Growth prospects and challenges of China Japan Business Alliance While Japan poses a formidable competitive threat, it also provides a vast opportunity. As the latter aspect of Chinas rise became increasingly apparent around 2002, Chinas perception of Japan became more realistic and balanced. Japans investment in China has been increasing rapidly in recent years: between 1999 and 2004 it grew by 3.5 times. And trade between the two countries has risen steadily over the last six years. Japan China business alliances have begun to cover broader aspects of business activities, from joint ventures and technology tie ups, to contracting aspects of production and consignment arrangements. Although there have been a limited number of examples, Japanese firms have even established comprehensive strategic partnerships with Chinese firms. With major and big Japanese firm small manufacturing firms are also looking towards China as locating their business and with better opportunities with future expansion. But for the successful business alliance between Chi na and Japan, these countries have to work together for several challenges which can become the issue in their alliances 1). There must a rule passed to secure the safety of Japanese firms operating in China and concluding a bilateral investment agreement. The large scale anti Japan demonstrations in China this past April damaged the facilities of some Japanese firms. And while the movement was promptly cooled by the Chinese government, a survey conducted in May following the April disturbances revealed that more than a third (or 36.5%) of respondent firms anticipate the negative impact on their business activities in this fiscal year. For further Japanese FDI in China in future, a bilateral investment agreement needs to be put in place. There is some cautious concern on the Chinese side about concluding such an agreement, but thinking of future technological cooperation between both countries should take a forward looking approach. 2). Another issue between both countries can be regarding the credit. Both China and Japan have to work together to build more credit based business culture. For urban economies to achieve healthy growth, the safety of business transactions must be guaranteed. Various business models can only be fostered in an economy where business transactions are secured and mutual trust is well established. A large number of foreign companies operating in China, however, face difficulties in collecting monies owed to them. This is also a looming issue for Chinese companies, because such problems can hinder future stable economic growth in urban areas, where many of these companies operate. China can resolve this problem by swiftly establishing an antitrust law and also enhancing law enforcement, clamping down on illegal transactions and improving corporate transparency. Japan also faced these issues during its high economic growth in the 1960s. 3). With getting the tough competition and being a rival for some years China and Japan are now understand the importance of come into alliance for the future growth, so for this purpose now Japanese and Chinese firms are coming into collaboration. Some local Chinese companies have recently begun to actively seek business partnerships with Japanese counterparts. In January 2002, Japans Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. (Sanyo) and Chinas Haier Group Company (Haier) agreed on a comprehensive collaboration deal some local Chinese companies have recently begun to actively seek business partnerships with Japanese counterparts. In January 2002, Japans Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. (Sanyo) and Chinas Haier Group Company (Haier) agreed on a comprehensive collaboration deal that included the sale of Sanyo products under either the Sanyo or the Haier brand names. In July 2003, a major Chinese pharmaceutical company announced an agreement with a medium sized Japanese manufacturer of Chinese medicines to purch ase the latter, the first case ever for a Chinese company to buy a Japanese one. These are the few example which shows that Chinese companies provides Japanese company with distribution channel to sell their products in Chinese market and grow their business. Conclusion East Asia will enter the second stage of economic integration by around 2008, when the whole region will aspire to become a free business zone, encompassing all regional FTAs and EPAs, including the FTA/EPA between China and Japan. However, in order to make talks for such an agreement go smoothly, China and Japan must build a firm mutual trust, both on political and private levels. Recent developments and achievements suggest that East Asia is finally coming around to giving more serious consideration to regional economic integration either as a complement or an alternative to the multilateral trading system. As discussed above, the economic grounds for closer economic integration among the East Asian countries have existed for many years. Rapid economic development over the past few decades, reinforced by changes in the global economic environment and an uncertain outlook for the international trading system, appears to have convinced the East Asian countries that potential benefits of closer regional economic cooperation outweigh the costs at least for now.
Posted by k at 3:14 PM
Sunday, October 13, 2019
Effects on Politics at home The Vietnam War brought complete turmoil to the American society. It all started when President Harry Truman wanted to stop the spread of communism in the Middle East and Asia by promoting the United States as an anti-communism country and offering help to other countries that were also against communism. President Truman used the word containment to describe this act of stopping communism in his foreign policies. This containment policy transcended to the 1960s, when John F. Kennedy and his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, were presidents. Kennedy won his presidency based largely on the fact that he promised to be more involvement in Vietnam (which was favored largely by the United States population) and the Cold War in general. Kennedy wanted to be more involved in Vietnam, and the Cold War in general, to preserve AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s power. With Kennedy and his team of U.S. Foreign Policy advisors, they believed to preserve AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s power they could help the development of Third World countriesÃ¢â¬âmostly, in turn so they will not become communist countries. One of these countries so happened to be Laos, however, it soon fell to communism and Kennedy had to pull back forces. With the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion and the back down in Laos, Kennedy believed that America could not withstand another failure; another hit that would diminish AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity. This is what led to KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in VietnamÃ¢â¬âfor he could not take another defeat of it. Kennedy offered a huge amount of support for the Ngo Dinh DiemÃ¢â¬â¢s Government. However, Kennedy rejected continuous proposals on sending large amounts of American troops into Vietnam in fear of a full out war and a huge rate of deployment. Instead, Kennedy ... ...t about 2 billion dollars a month, leading America to experience deficits and inflation. Because of this de-valued U.S. currency, it lead foreign investors to invest in things more profitableÃ¢â¬âtaking away a lot of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue. This lead to extremely higher tax rates, which also, threaten JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s reelection. There were protests in the streets, angry civilians, too many soldiers overseas, and chaos among congress, that led to JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall. America was an absolute turmoil, and because Johnson relied too heavily on his advisorsÃ¢â¬âwhich often had many different opinionsÃ¢â¬âhe did not know how to control the chaos. When reelection time came around, Richard M. Nixon won in a landslide with the promise of ending war in Vietnam. By 1969, Nixon had instituted Vietnamization. This policy ended AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the war and lead to a more stable America.
Posted by k at 2:13 PM
Saturday, October 12, 2019
Jean Paul Sartre's No Exit And Its Existentialist Themes I would like to take this opportunity to discuss Jean Paul Sartre's philosophy and it's integration into his play "No Exit". Embedded within the character interactions are many Sartrean philosophical themes. Personal attributes serve to demonstrate some of the more dominant ideas in Sartre's writings. Each of the three characters in the play show identifiable characteristics of sexual perversion, bad faith, and interactions of consciousness.This play takes an interesting setting, that of the afterlife. The plot centers around three main characters, Joseph Garcin, Estelle Rigault and Inez Serrano. Hell, as portrayed in this work, is no more than a room with three couches and Second Empire decorum. There are no mirrors, no windows, no books, generally no form of amusement. Some very human privileges that we take for granted have also been taken away: sleep, tears, and even momentary reprieves of blinking. Each of the three characters is introduced into the room by a surprisingly polite Valet. Initial confrontations are "uncomfortable", each person knowing that he/she is deceased, but they are not impolite. However, as the true reasons why each person has been sentenced to Hell are revealed, the true nature of the place takes shape. Rather than try to explain the chronological progression of the play, I would rather take each character and their opinions individually in an attempt to highlight what I believe are the important parts. The first person to appear in the play is Mr.Garcin. At first glance, he is a very polite, gentlemanly, and moral individual. However, the further into the play that we read, we find that he is none of these things. Instead, he represents some of the worst ails that afflict humankind (according to Sartre). He was graced with a wife that loved him unconditionally, and he loathed for no other reason. In fact, one the first memories that he has of her is how "she got on his nerves". There is one story that is obviously intended to shock the reader, and provide a good interpretation of Garcin's true character. He states:"Well here's something you can get your teeth into. I brought a half-caste girl to stay in our house. My wife slept upstairs; she must have heard - everything. She was an early riser and, as I and the girl stayed in bed late, she served us our... ...tolen away their ability to close their eyes. There is no way to turn off the sinks! Oaklander gives us a good description of the system, and how it applies to this situation:Rather it appears that the world has a kind of drain hole in the middle of its being and that it is perpetually flowing off through this hole. The universe, the flow, and the drain hole are all once again recovered, reapprehended, and fixed as an object. All this is there for me as a partial structure in the world, even though the total disintegration of the universe is involved. Moreover these disintegrations may often be contained within more narrow limits.. (Oaklander, pg. 284)In conclusion, Jean Paul Sartre takes less than fifty pages to materialize his existentialist ideas for the stage. He has given us interpretations of sexual desire, bad faith, and conscious interactions. As a note: I truly believe that this play could be analyzed on an even deeper level. Each comment could be dissected and applied to part of Sartre's theory. However, this scope was limited to stay within the bounds of this paper. Works Cited Sartre, Jean Paul. No Exit and Three Other Plays. 1944. NY: Vintage Books, 1989.
Posted by k at 1:12 PM
Friday, October 11, 2019
War, although being described by those who have survived it as hell, is in my opinion a necessary part of life in some sense in order to expand in many ways like socially, economically, and politically. In terms of social changes brought on by war, war often teaches us lessons about how to better our behaviour and attitudes in terms of our association both domestically and foreign. In World War 2 (1939 Ã¢â¬â 1945), America and GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction and hostilities soon diminished after the end of conflict suggesting that they had learned to get along (or at the very least solve their issues in a more diplomatic way.). Learning from our mistakes is essential for growing as a race in general. Had it not been for World War 2 the UN (United Nations) would have most likely not been formed and therefore our world would not feel the sense of unity that is present today. In terms of economic changes brought on by conflict or changes, had it not been for wars we would not gain items of value for the use of economic resources. Had the USA not gone over and improvised in Afghanistan they would have most likely lost what is estimated to have been one trillion dollars worth of oil. For this reason the Afghan War (2001 Ã¢â¬â Present) has been referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"resource warÃ¢â¬ . In terms of political change brought on by conflict or war, we as a society have learned many lessons of the importance of a strong political power which could in fact reduce the need for conflict or war. Had it not have been for the Vietnamese War (1959 Ã¢â¬â 1975), we would not have been shown the importance of international involvement from a single nation in order to assist a less fortunate nation. War has always, in the end, increased all nations sense of unity in some way. Had it not been for the Vietnamese War, America would still be in some state of singularity and arrogance. The loss in Vietnam for the Americans proved that even they the very powerful can be defeated; if they were not given assistance the losses could have been far greater. War may be brutal but there are many positives that can be taken away from it. War, though an expression of our inability to coordinate and understand one another is also a great teacher for the world at what is right and what is wrong. The atrocities and crimes committed during wartime, though terrible and evil as they appear are usually necessary and in the long run will eventually prove to be better for society. During World War 2 had the Allies not declared war against the Axis it is unthinkable as to what could have happened to our world. The Allies chose to stand up to what atrocities were committed by Hitler and stop his evil from spreading. World War 2 is also an exceptional example of what happens when good men fail to act and allow the actions of evil men to spread. Hitler rose to power and began breaching the Treaty of Versailles and built an army despite the Treaties clear clause in which it states that Germany is banned from ever creating an army to avoid the repetition of World War 1 (1914 Ã¢â¬â 1918). Had a militant force not attempted to stop Hitler and his Axis powers it is unthinkable as to what the outcome of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s plan could have been. World War 2 was completely justifiable in that the evil committed during this war far outweigh the possible evil that could have occurred had a war not occurred. Had a militant force not intervened and caused a war it is quite probable that Hitler would have just kept exterminating the Jewish population and that the world would have just continued to watch. During World War 2 we learned the importance of standing up against the tyrannical and not being afraid to stand up for what we as a civilisation believe to be acceptable behaviour. The conflicts during World War 2 could very well have been avoided had good men acted against HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s breach of the Treaty of Versailles and had the courage to stop him before, as we can now see, his plan could have been put into motion. We can simply justify World War 2 in that had The Allies failed to intervene the Nazis would simply continue to exterminate the Jewish population and many attempts to reach Hitler on a political level had been attempted and failed. War, although being a major drain on our economy, is also a great representation of our ability to learn and adapt to what is occurring throughout our time. Had we not spent so much money on war machines during wartimes, we would not have defences in place today that protect our nations against attacks from other possible threats. It is also important to recognize that had wars not occurred it is quite possible that our economies would in-fact be damaged by this. for example a large portion of the economy revolves around oil and it is estimated that had America neglected to act in Afghanistan and stop the Taliban from burning their oil supply as an act of aggression and arrogance against the USA, it is possible that approximately one trillion dollars worth of oil would have been wasted. Had the USA not stepped in and intervened in this conflict, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s already struggling economy would have been severely damaged and it is possible that this massive loss of oil would have quite possibly caused another depression in America. Had America not invested so much money into the conflict in Afghanistan there economy would have been severely damaged by this. The war in Afghanistan can be justified in that it was not originally intended for the sole purpose of protecting a means of economic revenue but was originally intended for the purpose of retrieving Osama Bin Laden and to punish him for his atrocities committed. It was only after this fact that OsamaÃ¢â¬â¢s militia began to burn up the oil fields that American geologist discovered that Afghanistan was actually sitting over one of the worlds largest oil deposits. Many people who are against the war in Afghanistan claim that this conflict comments on Americas greed for AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s oil deposits but it was intended originally to have been a mission to capture a known terrorist and to protect the people of Afghanistan. War is often a result of the lack of political effectiveness to eliminate issues and this causes violence. War can be justified in that many people are so close minded in that they would rather resort to violence and not accept a diplomatic solution to their issues that they have. The Vietnamese War is a result of America and her one-time ally the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to discuss and resolve their issues without resorting to War and conflict. The collective inability of the Soviet Union and the Vietnamese Government to accept Americas attempts at peace resulted in this conflict and therefore this conflict was justified. The Vietnamese War was somewhat unavoidable in that many attempts by America were made to achieve peace with Vietnam. After the Vietnamese War was eventually lost by the American Military, it was determined that the original intention of the Vietnam War was to preserve the Vietnamese peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s right to self determination and freedom from oppression by the government. The war is justifiable in that America was merely attempting at preserving a god given constitutional right in that we as a people deserve the right to choose our actions without input from and political force. The Vietnamese War had the best intentions to preserve our rights but was perhaps ill prepared on part of the American Military. Sometimes in order to do whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right we have to put aside the safety of others and make the difficult decisions that need to be made. Each and every war or conflict throughout history has been caused by circumstances that require action. Had action been neglected during any of the wars listed within this paper the results of these wars would have been far worse and many more would have died. All of the wars listed within this paper were unavoidable and justified in the fact that they all had the best of intentions in mind and that they were all attempted to be solved through non violent means. If a conflict is attempted to be resolved without violence or conflict then the act of war is justified.
Posted by k at 12:11 PM
Thursday, October 10, 2019
HealthCo is a nonprofit health care provider operating with 36 clinics in an open system within a functional organization. The clinics include rehabilitation units, therapy facilities, hospice and geriatric units, and other highly specialized centers. HealthCo operates with approximately 6,700 employees in the eastern United States. In line with the industry, HealthCo employs a larger number of women than men in the areas of nursing and patient care. HealthCo held a senior staff meeting to address current issues and the coming yearÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic initiatives. Attending the Senior Staff meeting were the CEO, Dr.Ã Palmer, Senior Officer Pat, Senior Officer Francis, and Senior Officer Mercer. During the meeting CEO, Dr. Palmer addressed a Human Resources report indicating that HealthCoÃ¢â¬â¢s turnover is 1. 5 times the industry standard. Dr. Palmer belief is that while HealthCo is competitive with salary, the benefits offered the employees is an area needing improvement. Dr. Palmer request that a team of four to six volunteers begin working on a plan for HealthCo becoming a top company in terms of work-life benefits. Question #1: How would you conduct a diagnosis of the situation at HealthCo? In order to effectively diagnosis the situation according to Ã¢â¬Å"entering and contracting are the initial steps in the OD processÃ¢â¬ (Cumming and Worley, 2009, P. 75). These steps are important to establish the relationship between the Organizational Development practitioner and the organization. This relationship defines the parameters for all remaining phases of the organizational development process such as: diagnosing the organization, planning and implementing, evaluating and institutionalizing the planned change. Identify the presenting problem Identifying the presenting problem is the perceived issue by the client, based on a preliminary inquiry. It is what appears to be going on. It is generally recognizable by the solution that is often, but not always suggested. After we identify the presenting problem, we can begin to clarify the organizational issue in order to better understand the context and nature of the presenting problem. Be sure to identify the presenting problem prior to proceeding to clarifying the organizational issue. Remember that the presenting problem often has an implied or stated solution. Clarifying the organizational issue It is often discovered that the presenting problem is accurate. However, a thorough diagnosis is required to support the diagnosis. The presenting problem is only enough information in order for the Organizational Development practitioner to say we need to take a look at the issue. This can be tricky though, because the client's mind might be made up in terms of the need for a training program and the Organizational Development practitioner knows that the presenting problem may just be an indication of a deeper issue within the organization. Therefore, additional data will need to be collected in order to understand the real issue. Cummings and Worley caution that many times the presenting problem can possibly be only a symptom of the real issue (2009, p. 76). The collection of this additional data will support the Organizational Development practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of the problem and solution in the attempt of approaching and choosing my relevant client. Determining the Relevant Client The process of determining the relevant client involves selecting the individuals within the organization who can directly impact the change issues. The relevant client will include the person who can authorize the use of appropriate resources for this project. At the same time, culturally, within the organization, these top level people have been historically unable to implement successful change. The next step is to identify the individuals involved in the making the change process to be successful. This should include leadership from all departments affected by these changes as well as representation from all locations. Effective identification of the presenting problem, clarifying the organizational issue, and correct selection of the relevant client will enable the Organizational Development practitioner to diagnose the organization. Diagnosing Organizations Diagnosing is the process by which the Organizational Development practitioner begins to understand how the organization is functioning. This information is required to design the change intervention. The diagnosis process will enable the Organizational Development practitioner and the members of the organization to jointly determine the issues to be addressed, the method by which the collection and analysis of the data will take place. An effective diagnosis will help to develop the relationship between all parties whereas together they can work toward the development of the necessary actions steps. The process begins with deciding which level of analysis to apply, organization, group, or individual level. Diagnosis can occur at all levels of analysis, or it can occur at only one level. Each level has inputs, design components, and outputs. Inputs are what organizations have to work with, general environment, industry, organization design, group design, and personal characteristics. Design components are the key components within the organization that enable the organization to take the inputs and change them into outputs, services or a product. There are six components at the organizational level, technology, structure, culture, measurement systems, human resources systems, and strategy. Group level design components include goal clarity, team functioning, group norms, group composition, and finally task structure. There are five design components within the individual level system. Each individual of analysis will take the inputs and work within the organizations design components structure to turn inputs into the desired outputs. Within the organizational level system outputs include organization effectiveness. This effectiveness includes performance, productivity, and stakeholder satisfaction. Group level systems affect team effectiveness, including quality of work life, and performance of the group. The individual level system outputs include individual effectiveness, job satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, and personal development. The organizations effectiveness depends on the alignment among the different groups. To determine if the organizations alignment the Organizational Development practitioner collects and analyzes data to answers two questions, does the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic orientation fit with the inputs, and do the design components fit with each other. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic Information The Organizational Development practitioner will play a very active role in the collection of data for diagnostic purposes. There are three important goals of data collection, obtaining valid information, rally support of the organizational members, and promotes a working relationship between the Organizational Development practitioner and the members of the organization. Method of Collection There are four techniques for gathering diagnostic data, questionnaires, interviews, observations, and unobtrusive measures. (Cummings and Worley, 2009) Each method holds major advantages and disadvantages. The most effective way to effectively collect data is through the questionnaire method. Questionnaires assess the more comprehensive characteristics of the organization. Technique for analyzing data Quantitative tool of research is a much more subjective form of research than qualitative research. Subjectivity allows the introduction of individual bias in the collection of the data. Qualitative research may be necessary when it is unclear what exactly is being looked for in a study. The researcher will then be required to determine what data is important and what isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. In qualitative research the use of content analysis and the force-field analysis data is collected from the use of interviews, observations and interview questions. The OD practitioner must then separate responses into two categories, the social aspect and the task aspect. In comparison, the quantitative research tool separates data so that they can be counted and modeled statistically. Tools used such as scattergrams, mean standard deviations, frequency distributions, and difference tests are intended to minimize any bias. Quantitative research then collects information like a machine. The result of quantitative research is a collection of numbers, which can be subjected to statistical analysis in the formation of a result. Quantitative research knows exactly what itÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for before the research begins. In qualitative research the focus of the study becomes apparent as time progresses. Feeding Back Diagnostic Information Feeding back diagnostic information according to Cummings and Worley is perhaps the most important step in the diagnosis process (2009). The effectiveness of feedback data rests on the results of the data presented evoking a sense of action in the organization and its members. There is more information normally gathered than is required, therefore, the OD practitioner must properly analyze the data and present only the meaningful data. Presenting more data than required could cause the organizational members to feel overwhelmed and cause resistance of change and a lack of motivation for change. Determining the content of the feedback can be described using nine properties (Cummings and Worley, 2009). The members of the organization are receptive to the data feedback when they find it meaningful. The inclusion of the managers and employees in the collection of the data can increase the data relevance. The feedback must be understandable and descriptive. The use of graphs and charts in presenting statistical data affords ease in the understanding of the complicated data. Detailed illustrations help employees get a good feel for the information. The data must be accurate and verifiable in order to guide the positive action of the organizational members. This can be accomplished if the content of the data feedback can be verified by the members of the organization as fitting into the organizations attitude and culture. The data feedback content must be timely, limited and significant. The feedback should take place as soon as possible from the time of the data gathering. Timely feedback will ensure motivation by the members of the organization to examine the data and thereby invoke change. The data must be limited to a realistic amount for the individuals to process. Data overload causes individuals to become overwhelmed, leading to feelings of failure. The data collected and presented must be significant to what the organizational members perceives as the problem. This helps the individuals direct their energies toward realistic change. Because data feedback can be vague, it is important to have a comparison that is understandable by the members. The use of comparisons whenever possible can help to provide the members with examples of how the data fits into their own group as well as the entire organization. The final property of the feedback content is the ability to present the data as to invoke the sense that the data is only a starting point. It should be presented as to guide the members into further and more in depth discussions of the issues presented. Designing an Intervention Effective interventions must meet three major criteria: Ã¢â¬Å"(1) the extent to which it fits the needs of the organization; (2) the degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes; and (3) the extent to which it transfers change management competence to organization membersÃ¢â¬ (Cummings and Worley, 2009 p. 51). The extent to which it fits the needs of the organization states that the organization will provide valid information on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s functions. This function allows that the organization is willing to participate in an accurate diagnosis of the organization that reflects fairly on what the members of the organization perceive as their concerns and issues. The organization will allow members the opportunity to make free and informed choices. All members are involved in the decisions for change and how that change will affect them. Finally, the organization gain membersÃ¢â¬â¢ internal commitment to their choices. Members accept ownership of the selected intervention and will take on the responsibility of the implementation of the change. Knowledge of outcomes is the second criteria for effective intervention. Since the purpose of an effective intervention is to produce a specific result, effective interventions are based on the valid knowledge that the intended result can actually be produced. Without that there would be no scientific basis to design an intervention. An explanation of the knowledge of outcomes criteria in the insurance industry can be explained by role of the underwriting department. Insurance companies are in the business of paying claims. However, it is the responsibility of the underwriters to accept or reject possible risks. An intervention attempted in the underwriting department to eliminate all losses would result in a failure in the criteria of knowledge of outcomes. There is no valid knowledge that could support this intervention. Extent to which it enhances the organizations capacity to manage change is the hird criteria of an effective intervention. The final criteria would expect that during the process of planning, implementing and intervention stages, the organizational members alone will have gained all necessary skills to carry out the planned change. Cummings and Worley state, Ã¢â¬Å"Competence in change management is essential in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment, where technological, social, economic, and political changes are rapid and persistentÃ¢â¬ (Cummings and Worley, 2009 p. 152). There are two contingencies used in the design of effective interventions. Both contingencies must be considered in designing an effective intervention. The first is contingencies related to the change situation. This would include four major areas of concentration, readiness for change, the capability to change, cultural context, and capabilities of the change agent. The issues of this contingency is the focus of the change situation, which includes the OD practitioner. There are four key issues in the contingencies related to the target of change. The four key issues to be examined are strategic issues, technological and structural issues, human resource issues, and human process issues. Strategic issues are the most critical issues faced by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations. The strategic issues facing any organization is deciding what function the organization will serve, what product or services to produce, and what market to produce or service for. Three other strategic issues include the ability of the organization to decide how to gain competitive advantage and how to relate to the environment. The final strategic issue is deciding what values will guide the organizational function. Technological and structural issues encompass the division of departments, coordination of the departments, delivery of the product or service, and the task of coordinating the people with the tasks. The concentration in these issues is considered to be activities related to the organizational design, employee involvement and work design. The strategic and technological and structural issues of the target of change contingency deals with the mechanics of the organization, while the human resource issues and human process issues are designed to deal with more of the humanistic side of issues. Human resources issues are understood to include the attracting competent staff, planning and development of employee careers, and setting the goals and rewards for the employees. The concentration in these issues is considered to be human resources management intervention. This concentration should not be confused with human process issues. Human process issues are concentrated on the social processing occurring within the organizational members, including the development of process for areas of how to communicate, solve problems, make decisions, interact and lead. The intervention designed in the area of human process issues includes such techniques as team building and conflict resolution. It is important to note that organizational issues are interrelated, decisions on the strategic issues will affect the structural issues, and therefor decisions must be decided as to their relationship to one another. Cummings and Worley state; Ã¢â¬Å"intervention design must create change methods appropriate to the organizational issues identified in the diagnosisÃ¢â¬ (Cummings and Worley, 2009 p. 154). Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change The final two activities in effective change management is managing the transition and sustaining momentum. During the managing transition the change agents responsibilities include, activity planning, commitment planning, and the change management structures. A successful transition depends on the change agentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to develop a schedule or timeline of specific times, activities and events, articulating the blending of changes tasks, and finally linking the change tasks to the organizations goals and priorities. The change agent will need to ensure that the activity plan is adaptable to change as feedback warrants, be cost effective and receives top-management. Commitment planning on the part of the change agent involves gaining the identifying and gaining the support and commitment from key individuals. In order to accelerate the transition a change agent will need to develop change management structures, and learning processes. Within the final stage of change the change agent must sustaining momentum so that they are carried out to completion. During this stage the change agent must providing resources for the change process through additional financial and human resources, creating a support system for the change agents thorough networks of close individuals to the change agents who offer emotional support and serve as a sounding board. The change agent must develop new competencies and skills through programs such as on-the-job counseling and coaching or traditional training programs. One effective way to sustain momentum is reinforcing new behaviors to implement the change. This is accomplished by giving formal rewards for the desired behaviors. Finally the last role the change agent must play is staying the course. There will be factors the discourage managers or organizations; it is the role of the change agent to instill patience and trust in the diagnosis and intervention work. Question #2: Based on the information provided in the scenarios and the case, what is your own diagnosis of the situation? Summary of the Data Within the industry, HealthCo offers its employees a competitive salary. However, the turnover rate is 1. 5 times the industry standard. In the attempt to improve the organizations competitive advantage, CEO, Dr. Palmer commissioned a survey of the female employees in the area of work-life issues. The survey ranked the top eight desired benefits, of those eight desired benefits HealthCo does not offer three and has only minimal benefits in the remainder. The current management and leadership staff within HealthCo is confrontational with the idea of the administering any additional work-life benefits in fear of additional issues with department workloads, which often exceed the day-to-day capacity of the staff. Another issue HealthCo faces is the laboratory services department being staffed 24/7, and is called upon to perform services at any time. Diagnosis There appears to be a breakdown within specific design components at the organizational level. While technology, structure, culture, measurement systems, and strategy appear to be effective, the human resources systems appear to lack the required skills and knowledge to implement change. There appears to be a systems fit issue between the organizational level structure and the group level quality of work-life and performance, as well as the individual level structure in terms of individual effectiveness. Intervention The direction of the intervention will fall into the area of Human Process Interventions. The specific interventions to be considered: a) Management and Leadership Development intervention. HealthCo current management staff displays objection to a work-life benefits strategy. This is due to the lack of knowledge of and the lack of skills required in implementing the change. The benefit of the intervention would include the development of the required knowledge and skills for the implementation of the necessary changes. b) Career Planning and Development. The diagnostic data points to a lack of importance in the value of the work-life benefits for the female employees within HealthCo. A new set of benefits could be identified and then implemented. A work-life balance intervention could identified and then implement a new work-life benefits package. Question #3: What do you see as the key issues in HealthCo becoming a top company in terms of work-life benefits? Based on data collected HealthCo faces one key issue in achieving the stated goal of CEO, Dr. Palmer, Ã¢â¬Å"become a top company in terms of work-life benefitsÃ¢â¬ . Regardless of what change is made to the current benefits program, HealthCoÃ¢â¬â¢s current management and leadership are not sufficiently prepared to implement the change. With the implementation of a management and leadership development intervention HealthCoÃ¢â¬â¢s management will have developed the skills and knowledge to implement new organizational strategies.
Posted by k at 5:01 PM
Wednesday, October 9, 2019
1. Executive Summary The following marketing plan forms the basis for the introduction of an innovative new product by SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s-Lance Inc. This analysis allows me to outline the best strategies to follow for the achievement of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic goals. Ã¢â¬Å"Pretzel AbobodasÃ¢â¬ will be marketed as a unique flavored pretzel that targets the Hispanic consumer, while striving to reinforce the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on wanting to penetrate the Hispanic market. The marketing strategies will hopefully enable our company to reach a market size of an estimated 2,000,000 Hispanic Consumers (targeted) with forecasted sales growth prospects of 5% over the next 3 years ($450,000 profits), while satisfying the needs if the unserved market of consumers. Success will be reflected by a sizeable capture of market shares within this market, while strategically positioning the company as a market leader in the salty snacks segments of the industry. Company Description SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s-Lance manufactures and markets snack foods throughout the United States and internationally. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products include pretzels, sandwich crackers, potato chips, cookies, tortilla chips, restaurant style crackers, nuts and other snacks. SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s-Lance has manufacturing facilities in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Indiana, Georgia, Arizona, Massachusetts, Texas, Florida, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada. Products are sold under the SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s of Hanover, Lance, Krunchers!, Cape Cod, Jays, Grande, TomÃ¢â¬â¢s, EatSmart Naturals, Archway, O-Ke-Doke, Padrinos, and Stella DÃ¢â¬â¢oro brand names along with a number of private label and third party brands. Products are distributed widely through grocery and mass merchandisers, convenience stores, club stores, food service outlets and other channels. Pretzel Abobodas will bring an entirely unique salty snack experience to its consumers. It will present itself as a healthier snacking alternative to consumers while providing the great taste of authentic Abobodas, which is a top Hispanic flavor preference. The strategic role of Pretzel Abobodas is centered on three objectives: * To be the market leader in innovative product introductions and successful product launches * To strengthen and satisfy the needs of Hispanic consumers and families * To become the market leader in the functional salty snacks category with increased market shares Situational Analysis The U.S. Hispanic population is the largest minority segment and is growing at a dramatic rate towards ethnic plurality, which has already occurred in the most populous states and is beginning to occur among the U.S. baby population. The future U.S. economy will depend on Hispanics by virtue of demographic change and the social and cultural shifts expected to accompany their continued growth. Hispanics exhibit distinct product consumption patterns and are not buying in ways that are the same as the total market. In forecasts of future consumption growth, the Hispanic share is significantly greater than that of non-Hispanics. The evidence for the distinctiveness and sustainability of Hispanic culture is convincing and implies a future American culture with a strong Hispanic flavor preference. SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Of Hanover Pretzels provide a healthy snacking option for consumers. There are many varieties and flavors of pretzels across the U.S. market but there have been no flavors produce d for the Hispanic Market. 2.1 Market Summary My target customer group is the Hispanic Market. The SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s of Hanover Brand is a nationally recognized brand among American Households. SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels dominate market share and the numbers continue to grow. While the numbers do continue to grow, the Hispanic Market has some great potential because we have not been able to penetrate the market enough to move the needle on share. Our brands have just really started to appear in the Houston Hispanic Market in stores such as Fiesta, and Food Town. Although we do have a little bit of presence in these markets, there is not a single item flavor wise that is targeted for this market. 2.1.1 Market Demographics Geographic The geographic target area that I am choosing is the Houston Hispanic Market Area, San Antonio Area, Corpus Christi, and a few more highly populated Hispanic areas. Demographic The demographic profile of my target market is going to be Hispanic Family Households with children 18 years and under Behavioral Factors * Hispanics constitute one of the fastest-growing racial/ethnic groups in the United States * Family Gathers are traditional for birthday, holidays, weekends, etc. * Hispanics, African Americans and Asians consume more beer than any other race which is a great tie in with pretzels 2.1.2 Market Needs The product will cater to both Physiological needs (nutritional value) and Social needs (perception of a social, healthy snack) and strive to provide the following benefits to Hispanic Consumers: * Healthy Snacking Alternative for Parties and family gatherings. * Price * Top Brand Product * Items that will last stretch in the household * Great tasting product 2.1.3 Market Trends The current trends include a shift away from junk foods, a growing interest in healthier/beneficial products, and the trend for personalization through customization or seeking in a wide introduction of flavors. Trends that will influence how customers will perceive our product include: * The importance to the customer- The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"customer-centricÃ¢â¬ has never been more important than it is today. With the arrival of the Ã¢â¬Å"information ageÃ¢â¬ , consumers world-wide know what is available, what everyone else is buying and how to find it online at the lowest cost. With this power has come the ability to shape markets, and define the products that they want. Manufacturers no longer have the power to define a market in their own closed space. The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"build it and they will comeÃ¢â¬ no longer applies Ã¢â¬â you must know what the customer wants in advance if you want any chance of survival. And once you have delivered what the customer wants, your product and your customer support must both be perfect, because in this age, word-of-mouth doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just reach family and friends, it reaches the world. Place the customer first. Listen to them before you build your product and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you what to make. Listen to them after they buy your product and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you how to keep them as repeat customers (and brand advocates). * The globalization of brands, and the ability of consumer demand to occur on a world-wide scale, is tipping the balance of power * The globalization of the messageÃ¢â¬ ¦Today, that world is gone. With the rise of the Internet and a population that increasingly views world travel as just another part of life, messages and brand images no longer stay where you put them. Instead, they go viral. They get picked up on YouTube. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re seen by travelers. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re found on the Internet (occasionally in a blog with a title like Ã¢â¬Å"the 10 worst marketing translationsÃ¢â¬ ). They are everywhere. Moving forward, the Ã¢â¬Å"messageÃ¢â¬ that a corporation presents must be global in nature, or at the least, local and regional messages must be cultivated in such a way as to work on a global scale. From a business perspective, this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a bad thing at all. In fact, get creative with your international message and perhaps youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get lucky and it will go viral. * The Power of the Ã¢â¬Å"SameÃ¢â¬ -Not only can you buy the same thing anywhere, people have grown to expect the same thing everywhere! While we still pride ourselves in finding that unique place or product, the reality is that the world is becoming one giant franchise. The Ã¢â¬Å"bland effectÃ¢â¬ (the ability to eat at a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s or Burger King in just about every country in the world) has moved into most major industries, from automotive to online, and shows no signs of slowing. 2.1.4 Market Growth The U.S. Hispanic population is the largest minority segment and is growing at a dramatic rate towards ethnic plurality, which has already occurred in the most populous states and is beginning to occur among the U.S. baby population. Hispanics already account for an important share of consumer expenditures and given their youth, educational advances, and increasing spending capacity, Hispanics are fast becoming preeminent drivers of growth and likely trend setters in the marketplace. Marketers will need to understand the what, where, how and why of their role in tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption space. In forecasts of future consumption growth, the Hispanic share is significantly greater than that of non-Hispanics. The evidence for the distinctiveness and sustainability of Hispanic culture is convincing and implies a future American culture with a strong Hispanic flavor. 2.2 SWOT Analysis The following SWOT analysis summarizes the key strengths and weaknesses that SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s-Lance faces, as well as the opportunities and threats to be considered. 2.2.1 Strengths -SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels are nationally recognized and consumed brands -SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels hold the largest share in the U.S. in its category -SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels are becoming the healthy snacking option among children and adults 2.2.2 Weaknesses -SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels are not sought after in the Hispanic Community -SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels have not produced any Hispanic or Regional Flavors -The Flavor Preference that I will be producing is not a global product so it will be hard for Hispanics to adopt this product 2.2.3 Opportunities -Product Flavor is not in any market -Test market areas are pretty complex -Niche Market item 2.2.4 Threats -The Bigger Salty Snack Companies will try to introduce the same product at a lower cost, different packaging (Predatory Pricing could take place) -There is no brand equity in this product -Lack of Immediate Competition for comparison 2.3 Competition The competition is few and far in between. There are a lot of salty snack companies that produce Pretzels, but they are not the main brand. Also, the other Pretzel companies are not DSD companies, meaning they send product straight to store ware houses. Frito Lay is the largest Salty Snack Company in the World. Rold Gold is their pretzel brand, but not their main brand. They do not hold the amount of market share that SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Brand. Their main brands are Lays, Doritos and Tostitos. The other company is UTZ. UTZ is a pretzel company that distributes products via warehouses. They make and sell pretzels, but they do not have a flavored pretzel line. There are many more company that product pretzels but they do not offer the full variety and are not nationally recognized for this product. 2.4 Product Offering When you grab a handful of pretzels, youÃ¢â¬â¢re getting a snack that comes with fiber, iron, zinc and folate. And besides these nutrients, pretzels are low in fat. Hold up, though; this snack can come at the price of too much salt, because some brands of pretzels have nearly a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s supply of sodium in one serving. Like most foods, the pros and cons vary from one product to the next. Low Fat Pretzels are one of best snacks when it comes to fat content. A 100-gram serving of hard pretzels, or about 16 pretzels depending on their size, has just three grams of total fat and no cholesterol. A significant amount of the fat Ã¢â¬â 88 percent Ã¢â¬â consists of healthy unsaturated fats that help lower cholesterol. (See Reference 1) The same portion of potato chips has 36 grams and tortilla chips have 23 grams of fat. Fiber Enjoying a snack of hard pretzels adds to your daily fiber intake. A 100-gram serving has three grams of fiber. That may not sound like much, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s eight percent of the recommended daily intake for men and 12 percent for women. Potato and tortilla chips have a little more fiber Ã¢â¬â four to five grams Ã¢â¬â but if you choose whole wheat pretzels, the amount goes up to eight grams. Calories Pretzels have fewer calories than potato or tortilla chips; but like many snacks, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not exactly low in calories. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll get 380 calories from a 100-gram serving of hard pretzels. (See Reference 4) The same serving of potato chips has 542 calories. Tortilla chips range from 489 to 514, depending on flavorings. Minerals Hard pretzels have seven to 10 percent of the daily intake of seven minerals, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re especially high in iron and zinc. (See Reference 9) In addition to carrying oxygen through the blood, iron provides short-term storage of oxygen in your muscles so that you have enough to meet the demands of increased activity. (See Reference 2) Zinc has many roles, from metabolism to the production of DNA and new cells. You also need zinc to support the immune systemÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to fight bacteria. (See Reference 3) A 100-gram serving of hard pretzels gives men 62 percent of their daily intake of iron and 13 percent of zinc. Women get 28 percent of their daily iron and 18 percent of zinc. 2.5 Keys to Success There are many keys to the successful launch and implementation of this brand extension. Below are several critical success factors that we must leverage to be successful. * The product must meet a marketÃ¢â¬â¢s needs better than the competition and customer alternatives (my product strategy has to be right) * The product must be taken to market through high-volume, competitive routes to market (I need a viable, volume go-to-market strategy and ability to execute in a way that drives sales growth fast) * The product must be rock-solid, high-quality and actually deliver the value promised so customers actually get the benefits theyÃ¢â¬â¢re seeking (and that weÃ¢â¬â¢re selling to them). This is critical and must actually be verified with early customer testing and validation (and the product doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t ship until itÃ¢â¬â¢s actually ready, regardless of the Ã¢â¬Å"scheduleÃ¢â¬ ). * The pre-launch market conditioning must create enough awareness and Ã¢â¬Å"buzzÃ¢â¬ with both prospective customers and sales channels that this new product is coming to enable the product to gain enough early mindshare and traction that leads to both actual Ã¢â¬Å"proofÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"social proofÃ¢â¬ that the product is ready for the market. To grow beyond the initial launch, the product must be proven to meet mainstream customer needs (mainstream customers are notoriously risk-averse, so they want to see other companies like them have already taken the risk and proven the product in their environment before using it). * The go-to-market engine must buy into the product early and allocate resources to it (e.g., sales force for directly sold product, resellers/affiliates for indirect sales must choose to invest) Ã¢â¬ ¦ and sales absolutely must have early success at selling the product. If the product isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really ready for prime time Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s dead (the sales force probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t touch it again for a long time, if ever, and bad news travels fast). And get this, because itÃ¢â¬â¢s super-critical. If the product doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t convert better than what the reseller/affiliate is already selling today, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also dead (they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste any more of their precious time on your new thingy, and will go right back to selling what already works for them and makes them the most money today). Sales people are Ã¢â¬Å"coin operatedÃ¢â¬ and their behavior and decision-making responds directly to what makes them the most money the quickest. 3.1 Mission The objective is to introduce the Pretzels Abobodas to the Hispanic Community. There has not been a pretzel introduced to this niche market of consumers. It is my hope that this is will be the number #1 household penetrated pretzel in its category. 3.2 Marketing Objectives Ultimately the marketing objective for this initiative is to penetrate Hispanic consumers with a healthy snacking alternative with their flavor of preference in which they can serve during their family gatherings and make it a part of their daily consumption. The objectives of the marketing plan are strategically centered around 3 criteria: to create a strong consumer awareness towards a completely new flavored pretzel product to establish a wide brand recognition through the capture of market shares in the functional salty snack category, and to become the top market leader in that particular segment within the forecasted sales figures * Increase sales by 5% during the next fiscal year of this item being in the market * Improve product awareness for both the core and line extension brands * Brand Management: This new item should be recognized nationally after its successful launch in the Texas Hispanic Markets 3.4 Target Markets My target customer group obviously is the Hispanic Market. The SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s of Hanover Brand is a nationally recognized brand among American Households. SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Pretzels dominate market share and the numbers continue to grow. While the numbers do continue to grow, the Hispanic Market has some great potential because we have not been able to penetrate the market enough to move the needle on share. Our brands have just really started to appear in the Houston Hispanic Market in stores such as Fiesta, and Food Town. Although we do have a little bit of presence in these markets, there is not a single item flavor wise that is targeted for this market GeographicÃ¢â¬â¢s: The geographic target area that I am choosing is the Houston Hispanic Market Area, San Antonio Area, Corpus Christi, and a few more highly populated Hispanic areas. Demographics: The demographic profile of my target market is going to be Hispanic Family Households with children 18 years and under Psychographics: Hispanics are very brand loyal and they use nationally advertised brands Hispanic families are close knit Familia includes parents, children, and extended familyÃ¢â¬ ¦the father is the head of the family and the mother is responsible for the home Individuals have a moral responsibility to take care of family members experiencing health issues, financial problem unemployment and other life issues Behavior: Hispanics constitute one of the fastest-growing racial/ethnic groups in the United States Family Gathers are traditional for birthday, holidays, weekends, etc Hispanics, African Americans and Asians consume more beer than any other race with is a great tie in with pretzels 3.5 Positioning Snyders of Hanover Pretzels is the #1 Pretzel in the category. This new flavor extension, the Pretzel Abobodas, provides a Healthy Snacking Alternative for Parties and family gatherings in the Hispanic Community. This product has price leadership in the market, making it very affordable to consumers, and a product that will last/stretch in any household. There are many varieties and flavors of pretzels across the U.S. market but there have been no flavors produced for the Hispanic Market. The most distinguishing feature for this new product is that it will provide Hispanics with one of their #1 flavor preferences on a pretzel which is the Abobodas seasoning. 3.7 Marketing Mix/Program The competition is few and far in between. There are a lot of salty snack companies that produce Pretzels, but they are not the main brand. Also, the other Pretzel companies are not DSD companies, meaning they send product straight to store ware houses. Frito Lay is the largest Salty Snack Company in the World. Rold Gold is their pretzel brand, but not their main brand. They do not hold the amount of market share that SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s Brand. Their main brands are Lays, Doritos and Tostitos. The other company is UTZ. UTZ is a pretzel company that distributes products via warehouses. They make and sell pretzels, but they do not have a flavored pretzel line. There are many more company that product pretzels but they do not offer the full variety and are not nationally recognized for this product. The #1 thing that gives the Pretzel Abobodas more value than the competition is the fact that there are no other companies offering or producing this product or advertising to this niche market of consumers. Price To determine pricing for this niche product, I will follow a very detailed process which is shown below. 1. Review research and development costs, unit costs for manufacturing and shipping, and advertising costs to determine the overall cost to produce and sell the new product. Determine a bottom line sales price needed to break even in the marketplace from this information. 2. Review market analysis and trend reports, target market profiles, customer surveys, and past performance reports on other company products to determine the value of your product in the marketplace. Unique products, products that satisfy consumer needs, or those that make significant changes to work processes or in the lives of consumer are considered the most valuable. 3. Research your competition in target marketplaces to determine if your product meets, exceeds or falls below available products. Visit competitor websites and stores, and read reviews of competitor products to determine how your product measures up and how it may be received by consumers. 4. Create a price range using all the manufacturing, marketing, consumer and competition information available. Include a bottom line sales price and a ceiling price, which is the most you can sell the new product for and realistically generate consistent profits. Create mid-range pricing based on competition and market saturation. 5. Set a price for your new product. Review pricing options, market interest and how much you want to earn from sales to determine a price. To determine what the Pretzel Abododas is worth, I will focus on the following areas below: 1. Cost: Focus on current and future costs (vs. historical ones). 2. Sensitivity to price: Every buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s priorities change, based on unlimited factors. I will have to be ready to adjust quickly. 3. Competitors: I will pay attention to competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ pricing strategies, but I will not follow too closely. They may be Ã¢â¬Å"winging it,Ã¢â¬ and I might get burned. 4. Product Lifecycle: The price(s) of myofferings will often change throughout the product/service lifecycle. To set the product apart from the competition, I will do the following: * Reinforce your brand. If the Pretzel Abododas is on the market and there is no reinforcement, it will become stagnant and lose ground. It is important continue to build this brand by communicating with the market regularly. Ã Consistent communication will ensure that this new brand extension appeals to consumers on an emotional level, and increase their awareness of it. * Position your brand: Positioning is all about putting your brand in the right place, in the market, so that it gains the attraction of the right audience. I will decide the best position after careful analysis of the market and competitors. * Integrate community interest in your brand: This can be a great tool to help spread word about the brand. On one level, the brand must establish a link with the local community. By including their interests, they will be attracted to the brand, and help to tell others about it. * Create an online Brand Community. Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, will move the brand into the global sphere. The creation of an online brand community, will raise brand awareness, as people tell the story of the brand and propel visibility to a global audience. Whether they exist on the local or online level, community members are committed to the brand, and can prove instrumental in increasing awareness, and moving the brand forward. * Special Promotions Ã¢â¬â Attract customers by giving away free items. There is no greater pull for consumers than getting something for nothing. It will improve the status of the brand in their eyes, and with the right promotions, I will be able to gain valuable attention for the brand Place This niche item is all about where it is placed. I plan to distribute this new item via the SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s-Lance Inc Independent Operator Direct Store Delivery System. Since this product is a brand extension, a new line for this item will be carried in all warehouses in this specific market. SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s-Lance will take responsibility for distribution in the areas where we have Independent Operators, such as Houston, San Antonio, and Corpus. In the more rural areas, we will outsource to an outside distributor. References Kahn, B.E. and T.A. Louie, Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Retraction of Price Promotion on Brand Choice Behavior for Variety Seeking and Last-purchase-loyal Consumers,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 27, August, pp. 279-289, 1990. Minor, Micheal, Ã¢â¬Å"Comparing the Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Markets: How Different Are They?Ã¢â¬ Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 29-32 1992. U.S Census Bureau, Census 2000. Retrieved December 4, 2012. Webster, Cynthia, Ã¢â¬Å"Attitudes towards Marketing Practices: The Effects of Ethnic Identification,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 107-116, 1991.
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Shaping An Individual As A Person And as A Learner - Essay Example You teach, you should be more goal focused, and you cannot be a good teacher with a bad plan, and it does not mean that having a good plan makes you a good teacher definitelyÃ¢â¬ (Wiggins, 2013). In every sense, curriculum design and implementation shapes an individual as a person and learns. It is evident that curriculum designs can have the profound influence on the lives of students and learners. It may also affect the approach that students have towards life and how they approach life in general. Basically, proper curriculum designs and their effective implementation will positively impact the lives of student and learners. This being the case, the vice versa is true. When I was a kid, I had an experience unlike any of my classmates then. When I was in lower primary school, Most of the mates with whom I was schooling liked reading a lot. It was hard for me to be found studying on my own; much of the things I was interested in related to science, especially physical science. I loved science so much that my dream was always to be a scientist. I liked the practical bits of almost all lessons, including the Physical Education lessons. I never was interested in history and such lessons which demanded that I spend much time reading. This was due to the fact that my teacher used science as an approach to almost all subjects, thus I increasingly disliked non science based subjects. This was advantageous to me since I loved the scientific approach, but was a headache to most of my mates who did not have science related careers as their aspirations. This was in a way not addressing the general students whose likeliness of doing the sciences was low. Ã¢â¬Å"JesuitÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculumÃ is structured to develop disciplined habits, to stimulate critical thinking, and to develop the skills necessary for the expression of that thinking. The school strives to instill five characteristics in its students. The goal is to educate our young men to be open to growth, intellectually competent.
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